SAREF extension for environment

Latest version:
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/
Permanent IRI for this version (v1.1.2)
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/v1.1.2/
ETSI Technical Specification
https://saref.etsi.org/sources/saref4envi/
Publication Date
2020-06-05
Last Modification Date
2020-06-05
Creators
Ontology requirements and tests
requirements and tests
Prefix and namespace declaration:
Turtle: @prefix s4envi: <https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/> .
SPARQL: PREFIX s4envi: <https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/>
Download serialization:
License:

Abstract

The present document is the technical specification of SAREF4ENVI, an extension of SAREF [1] for the environment domain. The extension was created in collaboration with domain experts in the field of light pollution currently working in the STARS4ALL European H2020 project (http://www.stars4all.eu/index.php/lpi/). The STARS4ALL project is composed by partners such as Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, ESCP Europe, Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, University of Southampton, Europan Crowdfunding Network, and CEFRIEL (Società Consortile a Responsabilita Limitata).

SAREF4ENVI has two main aims: on the one hand, to be the basis for enabling the use of SAREF in the environment domain and, on the other hand, to exemplify how to enable interoperability between environmental devices in cooperation.

SAREF4ENVI is an OWL-DL ontology that extends SAREF with 32 classes (24 defined in SAREF4ENVI and 7 reused from the time, SAREF and geo ontologies), 24 object properties (22 defined in SAREF4ENVI and 2 reused from the SAREF and geo ontologies), 13 data type properties (9 defined in SAREF4ENVI and 4 reused from the SAREF ontology), and 24 individuals (9 defined in SAREF4ENVI and 12 reused from the OM ontology). SAREF4ENVI focuses on extending SAREF for photometers to solve the lack of interoperability between sensors that can measure and share information about light pollution. Such extension involves the following use cases (more details can be found in ETSI TR 103 411 [i.1]):

  • Use case 1: Monitor light pollution in a city, through the data collected by photometers about the magnitude of the light emitted in a given area.
  • Use case 2: Adjust lampposts light intensity due to high pollution, after identifying the most contaminating lampposts and therefore the areas where more energy is being thrown away.
  • Use case 3: Register a photometer, in which a new collection of photometers is incorporated into an existing sensor network.

Introduction

General Overview

A graphical overview of the SAREF4ENVI ontology is provided in Figure 1.

In such figure, grey rectangles are used to denote classes created in the ontology while white rectangles denote reused classes. For all the entities, it is indicated whether they are defined in the extension or in other ontologies by the prefix included before their identifier, that is, if the element is defined in SAREF4ENVI there is no prefix added and if the element is reused from another ontology it is indicated by a prefix according to the Namespace Declarations section.

Arrows are used represent properties between classes and to represent some RDF, RDF-S and OWL constructs, more precisely:

  • Plain arrows with white triangles represent the rdfs:subClassOf relation between two classes. The origin of the arrow is the class to be declared as subclass of the class at the destination of the arrow.
  • Dashed arrows between two classes indicate a local restriction in the origin class, i.e. that the object property can be instantiated between the classes in the origin and the destination of the arrow. The identifier of the object property is indicated within the arrow.
  • Dashed arrows with identifiers between stereotype signs (i.e. "<< >>") refer to OWL constructs that are applied to some ontology elements, that is, they can be applied to classes or properties depending on the OWL construct being used.
  • Dashed arrows with no identifier are used to represent the rdf:type relation, indicating that the element in the origin of the arrow is an instance of the class in the destination of the arrow.

Datatype properties are denoted by rectangles attached to the classes, in an UML-oriented way. Dashed boxes represent local restrictions in the class, i.e. datatype properties that can be applied to the class it is attached to.

Individuals are denoted by grey rectangles (or white ones in the case of being reused from other ontologies) in which the identifier is underlined.

The representation of additional property axioms (functional, inverse functional, transitive, and symmetric) that are being used in the diagram is shown in the legend of Figure 1.

Clause 4.2.2 to clause 4.2.7 describe the different parts of the SAREF4ENVI extension describing the different conceptual modules of the ontology.

SAREF4ENVI overview
Figure 1: SAREF4ENVI overview

Physical Object Hierarchy

In SAREF4ENVI, the SAREF ontology has been extended with various elements to describe different physical objects, devices, and their characteristics.

Apart from extending the saref:Device class with the s4envi:Device class, a hierarchy has been defined also including the classes s4envi:PhysicalObject, s4envi:System and s4envi:Actuator in the upper levels. In order to represent sensors from the light pollution domain, the classes s4envi:Photometer and s4envi:TESS (a specific type of photometer) have been included extending the hierarchy. Such classes are organized in the hierarchy shown in Figure 2.

Physical Object hierarchy
Figure 2: Physical Object hierarchy

Devices and Measurements

Devices and measurements are depicted in Figure 3. This model represents an n-ary pattern that allows users to relate different measurements from a given sensor for different properties measured in different units. That is, the saref:Measurement class aims at describing a measurement of a physical quantity (using the saref:hasValue property) for a given saref:Property and according to a given saref:UnitOfMeasure.

This pattern enables to differentiate between properties and the measurements made for such properties and to store measurements for a concrete property in different units of measurement.

Furthermore, it allows adding a timestamp (using the saref:hasTimeStamp property) to identify when the measurement applies to the property, which can be used either for single measurements or for series of measurements (e.g. measurement streams).

It is worth noting that this modelling was included in SAREF 2.0 after the SAREF4ENVI extension was developed. This pattern was first included in the SAREF4ENVI and SAREF4BLDG extensions and then proposed to be extrapolated to SAREF 2.0; this explains why the prefix used for this part of the model refers to SAREF instead of to SAREF4ENVI. However, as its origin is in the SAREF4ENVI and SAREF4BLDG extensions requirements and models, the explanations are kept in the present document.

Sensor and measurement model
Figure 3: Sensor and measurement model

Devices

Figure 4 represents the s4envi:Device class which is extended from saref:Device; therefore, the new class inherits the properties defined in the SAREF ontology for saref:Device, such as saref:hasManufacturer. In addition, the class has been complemented with the properties s4envi:hasFrequencyMeasurement and s4envi:hasTransmissionPeriod in order to model the frequency with which a device makes measurements and its period for transmitting such measurements. Both relationships are represented by n-ary relationships modelled by the classes s4envi:FrequencyMeasurement and s4envi:PeriodMeasurement, which are subclasses of saref:Measurement. The specific value for the frequency and the period is indicated by the datatype property saref:hasValue , which is inherited from the class saref:Measurement.

As the temporal units of measurement are already defined in SAREF by means of the class time:TemporalUnit, there has been no need for defining new units for s4envi:PeriodMeasurement. However, new units of measurement are needed to represent frequencies; therefore, saref:UnitOfMeasure class has been extended with the class s4envi:FrequencyUnit, including the main instances from the OM units of measurement ontology to measure frequency, such as om:hertz, om:reciprocal_second-time, om:reciprocal_hour, om:reciprocal_day, and om:reciprocal_year. It is worth noting that the user is free to use other units of measurement if required.

Finally, s4envi:Actuator has been added according to the domain expert requirements in order to represent devices that can act (s4envi:affectsProperty) over properties as shown in Figure 4.

Device model
Figure 4: Device model

Systems and Physical Objects

As already observed in Figure 2, according to the requirements extracted from uses cases and domain experts, it was necessary to include more general information about systems and physical objects, which are superclasses of devices, in order to provide a general framework for representing communications, componency, and digital representations. This section focuses on these additional classes included in SAREF4ENVI that model how to access physical objects and their components.

Figure 5 represents the class s4envi:System and its properties. It can observed that a system can be composed of other systems and this is represented by the property s4envi:hasComponent and its inverse s4envi:isComponentOf. A system can also be connected to other systems, represented by the s4envi:isConnectedTo property.

The communication protocol and interface that a system might use are represented by the classes s4envi:CommunicationProtocol and s4envi:CommunicationInterface, respectively.

System model
Figure 5: System model

The model represented in Figure 6 supports the representation of services that allow the access to digital representations of a given physical object (e.g. devices, sensors, etc.). The main entity in this model is s4envi:PhysicalObject that represents a general class for devices and systems and any other entity with a physical representation in order to make the model extensible to other domains. Such object can have digital representations (s4envi:DigitalRepresention) that can be accessed through services (saref:Service).

In addition, the digital representation can be linked back to the physical object that it encapsulates by means of the property s4envi:encapsulates, defined as inverse of s4envi:hasDigitalRepresentation. It is worth noting that s4envi:hasDigitalRepresentation is defined as inverse functional since a digital representation can encapsulate only one object.

Finally, the relation between a physical object and its location is represented by the reused property geo:location. In addition, s4envi:PhysicalObject is declared to be subclass of geo:SpatialThing.

Physical object and digital representation model
Figure 6: Physical object and digital representation model

Photometers

A photometer, in general, is an instrument that measures light intensity or optical properties of solutions or surfaces. In general a s4envi:Photometer is an entity that observes some s4envi:LightProperty, in a way of paraphrasing the axiom shown in Figure 7. In such figure, it can also be observed that a particular case of photometer is a s4envi:TESS (Telescope Encoder and Sky Sensor). It is worth noting that other particular photometers could be added by extending the s4envi:Photometer class when reusing this extension.

Furthermore, Figure 7 also shows the main light properties that can be observed by a photometer. These properties are represented as instances, for example s4envi:Luminiscence, of the class s4envi:LightProperty.

Photometer and light property model
Figure 7: Photometer and light property model

Lampposts, Light Points and Light

Figure 8 represents the model to represent lampposts and their possible light points using the classes s4envi:Lamppost and s4envi:LightPoint. It can also be indicated that a lamppost can have one or more light points by using the s4envi:hasLightPoint object property.

In this model both lampost and light points are allowed to be agents that project light (represented by the property s4envi:projectsLight). In this sense, one lamppost could directly project light or in a more complex scenario a lamppost could have different light points being these light points in charge of projecting the light.

Finally, s4envi:LightPoint has been defined as subclass of geo:Point as it is a point located in a given space and it can inherit the mechanism to express its latitude, altitude and longitude from geo:Point.

Lamppost and light point model
Figure 8: Lamppost and light point model

The model depicted in Figure 9 represents the light characteristics. It can be observed that a light is projected in a certain angle, in a given direction and from a given height, represented by the properties s4envi:hasProjectionAngle (datatype property), s4envi:isProjectedInDirection (object property) and s4envi:isProjectedFromHeight (object property), respectively.

The angle is represented by a float indicating the degrees of the cone of light that the light emits. Besides, the direction can be represented by instances of the class s4envi:CompassDirection that could represent values such as North, South, Northwest, etc.

The height from which a light is projected is modelled as a subclass of saref:Measurement, namely s4envi:HeightMeasurement, as in this case it is necessary to indicate the value of such measure, inherited from saref:Measurement, and the unit of measurement used. That is, an n-ary pattern is used here.

The colour of the light emitted is represented by the objet property s4envi:hasColor and its values should be instantiated as individuals of the class s4envi:Color. Similarly, the geometry of a light can be indicated by means of the s4envi:hasGeometry object property and its values would belong to the class s4envi:Geometry.

Finally, it could be indicated whether a light has a flash by using the s4envi:hasFlash datatype property.

Light model
Figure 9: Light model

Observations about S4ENVI

In the following, several observations about potential uses of the SAREF4ENVI ontology are listed.

First of all, it is worth reminding here that a TESS is an example of a particular photometer, other photometers could be included by extending the class s4envi:Photometer.

In addition, in order to include other physical objects or devices related to environmental measurements in other use cases, the different classes included in the ontology could be extended. For example, s4envi:Photometer should be extended to represent CO2 sensors; in that case, the saref:Property hierarchy should be extended with the properties that CO2 sensors might measure following the guidelines presented in this extension.

Namespace Declarations

default namespace:
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/
owl:
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
saref:
https://saref.etsi.org/core/
xsd:
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#
rdfs:
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
geo:
http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/wgs84_pos#
s4envi:
https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/
rdf:
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
xml:
http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace
dcterms:
http://purl.org/dc/terms/
time:
http://www.w3.org/2006/time#
vann:
http://purl.org/vocab/vann/

Classes

Actuator back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/Actuator

Device that can act over at least one property.

Color back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/Color

Color of the emitted light. It might be indicated by named colors or using other type of color values like hexadecimal for RGB, color temperature, etc.

Communication interface back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/CommunicationInterface

An interface defines which primitive operations and services the lower layer makes available to the upper one, when referring to network layers. (Definition adapted from "Tanenbaum, A. S. (2003). Computer networks, 4-th edition. ed: Prentice Hall.")

Communication protocol back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/CommunicationProtocol

A protocol is an agreement between the communicating parties on how communication is to proceed. (Definition taken from "Tanenbaum, A. S. (2003). Computer networks, 4-th edition. ed: Prentice Hall.")

Compass direction back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/CompassDirection

The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are the directions of north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials: N, E, S, W. East and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the clockwise direction of rotation from north and west being directly opposite east. Intermediate points between the four cardinal directions form the points of the compass. (definition taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardinal_direction)

Device back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/Device

A thing made or adapted for a particular purpose, especially a piece of mechanical or electronic equipment. For example ‘a measuring device’ (definition taken from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/device). In this ontology it refers to the devices for environmental purposes.

Digital representation back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/DigitalRepresentation

A digital representation encapsulates a physical object accessible via Web services

Frequency measurement back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/FrequencyMeasurement

Represents the measured value made over a frequency property. It is also linked to the frequency unit of measure in which the value is expressed and the timestamp of the measurement.

Geometry back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/Geometry

Represents the shape of the light emission. It might be instantiated by individuals like "spherical", "cylindrical", etc. even though it is open to more comples representation of geometries using other vocabularies.

Height measurement back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/HeightMeasurement

Represents the measured value made over a height property. It is also linked to the height unit of measure in which the value is expressed and the timestamp of the measurement.

Lamppost back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/Lamppost

A tall pole with a light at the top.

Light back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/Light

A light source, which may be a lantern, a street light, a floodlight, a signal lamp or any other device whose primary purpose is the generation of light. (Definition taken from http://wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Proposed_features/Key:light_source#Description)

Light point back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/LightPoint

An spatial point from where a light is projected. It might belong to a lamppost.

Light property back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/LightProperty

An aspect of light that can be observable by a sensor.

Period measurement back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/PeriodMeasurement

Represents the measured value over a period property. It is also linked to the period unit of measure in which the value is expressed and the timestamp of the measurement.

Photometer back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/Photometer

A photometer, generally, is an instrument that measures light intensity or optical properties of solutions or surfaces.

has super-classes
saref:Sensorc
saref:measuresPropertyop some s4envi:LightPropertyc
has sub-classes
s4envi:TESSc

Physical object back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/PhysicalObject

Any Object that has a proper space region. (Definition extracted from DUL ontology)

System back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/System

A group of related hardware units or programs or both, especially when dedicated to a single application. (Definition taken from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/system)

TESS (Telescope Encoder and Sky Sensor) back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/TESS

The Telescope Encoder and Sky Sensor (TESS) is a Sky Brightness and Cloud detector developed as a device for a remote observatory. A TESS can observe the light magnitude and other properties as ambient temperature and sky temperature.

has super-classes
s4envi:Photometerc

Object Properties

affects property back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/affectsProperty

A relation between an actuator with the property or properties it can act on

contains back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/contains

A relation between a physical object and the physical objects that can be contained in it.

is inverse of
s4envi:isContainedInop

encapsulates back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/encapsulates

A relation between a digital representation and the physical objects it represents.

has characteristics: functional

is inverse of
s4envi:hasDigitalRepresentationop

has color back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/hasColor

A relation between a light emitted and its color.

has component back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/hasComponent

A relation between a system and the system in which it might be decomposed.

has characteristics: transitive

is inverse of
s4envi:isComponentOfop

has digital representation back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/hasDigitalRepresentation

A relation between a physical object and the digital representation in which it is encapsulated.

has characteristics: inverse functional

is inverse of
s4envi:encapsulatesop

has frequency measurement back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/hasFrequencyMeasurement

The relation between a device and the frequency in which it makes measurements.

has geometry back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/hasGeometry

A relation between a light emitted and the shape it is projected in.

has light point back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/hasLightPoint

A relation between a lamppost and its light points

has transmission period back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/hasTransmissionPeriod

The relation between a device and the period in which it transmit information.

is accesible through back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/isAccesibleThrough

The relation between a digital representation and the service which it is accesible through.

has characteristics: functional

is component of back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/isComponentOf

A relation between a system and the system it belongs to as a component.

has characteristics: transitive

is inverse of
s4envi:hasComponentop

is connected to back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/isConnectedTo

A relation between a system and the system to which it is connected.

has characteristics: symmetric

is contained in back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/isContainedIn

A relation between a physical object and the physical object in which it might be contained.

is inverse of
s4envi:containsop

is projected from height back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/isProjectedFromHeight

A relation between a light and the height measurement from which it is projected.

is projected in direction back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/isProjectedInDirection

A relation between a light and the direction in which it is projected.

projects light back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/projectsLight

A relation between a lamppost or a light point and the light (or lights) they might project.

uses communication interface back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/usesCommunicationInterface

A relation between a system and the communication interface it uses.

uses communication protocol back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/usesCommunicationProtocol

A relation between a system and the communication protocol it uses.

Data Properties

has creation date back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/hasCreationDate

A relationship defining the creation date of an entity (e.g., a digital representation).

has characteristics:functional

has range
xsd:dateTime

has flash back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/hasFlash

A relationship stating whether a light has flash.

has characteristics:functional

has range
xsd:boolean

has identifier back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/hasIdentifier

A relationship providing the identifier of an entity (e.g., digital representation)

has range
xsd:string

has projection angle back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/hasProjectionAngle

A relationship defining the projection angle of an entity (e.g., a light).

has characteristics:functional

has range
xsd:float

has revision number back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/hasRevisionNumber

A relationship defining the revision number of a certain entity (e.g., a device)

has range
xsd:string

has shield back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/hasShield

A relationship stating whether a lamppost has a shield.

has characteristics:functional

has range
xsd:boolean

has tag back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/hasTag

A relationship stating the tags that can be assigned to an entity (e.g., a digital representation).

has range
xsd:string

has version back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/hasVersion

A relationship defining the version of a certain entity (e.g., a device)

has characteristics:functional

has range
xsd:string

Named Individuals

Fluorescence back to ToC or Named Individuals ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/Fluorescence

An individual representing the light property fluorescence.

Frequency back to ToC or Named Individuals ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/Frequency

An individual representing the property frequency.

belongs to
saref:Propertyc

Height back to ToC or Named Individuals ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/Height

An individual representing the property height.

belongs to
saref:Propertyc

Illuminance back to ToC or Named Individuals ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/Illuminance

An individual representing the light property illuminance.

Irradiance back to ToC or Named Individuals ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/Irradiance

An individual representing the light property irradiance.

Light absorption back to ToC or Named Individuals ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/LightAbsorption

An individual representing the light property light absorption.

Light magnitude back to ToC or Named Individuals ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/LightMagnitude

An individual representing the light property light magnitude.

Luminiscence back to ToC or Named Individuals ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/Luminiscence

An individual representing the light property luminiscence.

Period back to ToC or Named Individuals ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/Period

An individual representing the property period.

belongs to
saref:Propertyc

Phosphorescence back to ToC or Named Individuals ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/Phosphorescence

An individual representing the light property phosphorescence.

Reflection of light back to ToC or Named Individuals ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/ReflectionOfLight

An individual representing the light property reflection of light.

Scattering of light back to ToC or Named Individuals ToC

IRI: https://saref.etsi.org/saref4envi/ScatteringOfLight

An individual representing the light property scattering of light.

References

Normative references

  • [1] ETSI TS 103 264 (V3.1.1) (02-2020): "SmartM2M; Smart Applications; Reference Ontology and oneM2M Mapping".

Informative references

  • [i.1] ETSI TR 103 411: "SmartM2M; Smart Appliances; SAREF extension investigation".
  • [i.2] Zamorano, J., García, C., González, R, Gallego, J., Pascual, S., Tapia, C., Nievas, M., Sánchez, A., Cardiel, N. Deliverable D4.1: "Photometer sensor (prototype)". STARS4ALL project. March 30th, 2016.
  • [i.3] "Variación espacial, temporal y espectral de la contaminación lumínica y sus fuentes: Metodología y resultados". Ph.D. thesis. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. February, 2015.

Acknowledgements

The editors would like to thank the ETSI SmartM2M technical committee for providing guidance and expertise.

Also, many thanks to the ETSI staff and all other current and former active Participants of the ETSI SmartM2M group for their support, technical input and suggestions that led to improvements to this ontology.

Also, special thanks goes to the ETSI SmartM2M Technical Officer Guillemin Patrick for his help.

This documentation page was generated automatically using SPARQL-Generate, developed by Maxime Lefrançois. The SAREF public portal, the SAREF sources with continuous integration and deployment, the SAREF Pipeline software, and ETSI Technical Specification TS 103 673 v1.1.1 "SAREF Development Framework and Workflow, Streamlining the Development of SAREF and its Extensions", have been developed in the context of the ETSI STF 578, which followed the ETSI STF 556.