@prefix s4watr: <https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/> .
PREFIX s4watr: <https://saref.etsi.org/saref4watr/>
This document presents the implementation of the SAREF extension for the water domain (SAREF4WATR) which based on a limited set of use cases and from available existing data models. This work has been developed in the context of the STF 566 which was established with the goal to create SAREF extensions for the domains of automotive, eHealth and ageing well, wearables, and water.
Figure 1 and Figure 2 present an overview of the classes and the properties included in the SAREF4WATR extension.
As it can be observed in Figure 3, the modelling of measurements in the SAREF4WATR ontology mostly relies on the measurement model proposed in SAREF.
SAREF allows to define the temporal extent of a measurement by defining the timestamp for it (using the saref:hasTimestamp property). However, the SAREF4WATR extension also required to be able to define the temporal interval to which a measurement applies, apart from the temporal instant defined by the timestamp. Therefore, the s4watr:hasPhenomenonTime property has been defined in this extension to define the time for which the measurement applies to a feature of interest. The range of this property time has been defined as a time:TemporalEntity, which allows defining temporal intervals or instants.
Besides, the extension requires to be able to represent those devices that measure a certain feature of interest (and those features of interest that are measured by a device) independently of having measures from which this relationship could be inferred. Because of this, in this extension we have created four new properties to relate saref:Device and saref:FeatureOfInterest: s4watr:featureIsMeasuredByDevice, s4watr:featureIsControlledByDevice, s4watr:measuresFeature, and s4watr:controlsFeature.
Figure 4 provides an overview of how to represent a water meter using the s4watr:WaterMeter class. The representation of water meters and their properties has been extracted from the European M-Bus standard (EN 13757).
A water meter may be defined by the properties inherited from SAREF (e.g., saref:hasManufacturer or saref:hasModel) and also by a set of properties defined in SAREF4WATR to indicate: its fabrication number (s4watr:hasFabricationNumber), its firmware version (s4watr:hasFirmwareVersion), its hardware version (s4watr:hasHardwareVersion), its version (s4watr:hasVersion), the radio frequency in which it operates (s4watr:operatesAtRadioFrequency), and its required power (s4watr:requiresPower).
Measurements may be taken from the water meter themselves. To enable the representation of such measurements, water meters are defined as features of interest (saref:FeatureOfInterest) and a non-exhaustive list of properties has been defined based on the M-Bus standard to allow measuring: on time (s4watr:MeterOnTime), operating time (s4watr:MeterOperatingTime), battery operating time (s4watr:BatteryOperatingTime), battery last change (s4watr:BatteryLastChange), and battery remaining time (s4watr:BatteryRemainingTime).
Water meters are mainly intended to measure water flows. SAREF4WATR defines the main properties related to the water flow that are defined in the European M-Bus standard (EN 13757): pressure (s4watr:FlowPressure), rate (s4watr:FlowRate), temperature(s4watr:FlowTemperature), and volume(s4watr:FlowVolume). These properties are depicted in Figure 5.
There are also other environmental factors that are relevant since they affect water and the infrastructures using it. Therefore, the following environmental properties, depicted in Figure 6, are defined: atmospheric pressure (s4watr:AtmosphericPressure), humidity (s4watr:Humidity), precipitation (s4watr:Precipitation) and temperature (s4watr:ExternalTemperature).
SAREF4WATR allows describing the tariff that is applied to a water meter by means of the s4watr:Tariff class, as presented in Figure 7. The representation of tariffs has been extracted from the CEN/TR 17167 technical report.
A tariff may be described using different properties to describe its: start timestamp (s4watr:hasStartTimestamp), duration (s4watr:hasDuration), period (s4watr:hasPeriod), billing date (s4watr:hasBillingDate), and billing period (s4watr:hasBillingPeriod). Besides, a tariff can be related to a water meter by means of the s4watr:appliesTo property. There are different types of tariffs, depending on whether they are based on thresholds (s4watr:ThresholdBasedTariff), consumption (s4watr:ConsumptionBasedTariff), or time (s4watr:TimeBasedTariff). Each of these types of tariffs has its own properties: for threshold-based ones their volume flow can be defined (s4watr:forVolumeFlow), for consumption-based ones their volume and financial consumption can be defined (s4watr:forVolumeConsumption and s4watr:forFinancialConsumption, respectively), and for time-based ones their absolute time at day, week day and day in month can be defined (s4watr:forAbsoluteTimeAtDay, s4watr:forWeekDay and s4watr:forDayInMonth, respectively). It is also possible to define a combined tariff by making it an instance of more than one type of tariff.
SAREF4WATR defines four types of water as instances of the s4watr:Water class: raw water (s4watr:RawWater), drinking water (s4watr:DrinkingWater), storm water (s4watr:StormWater), and waste water (s4watr:WasteWater). All these types of water, depicted in Figure 8, are defined as features of interest (saref:FeatureOfInterest), so measurements and key performance indicators can be defined over them.
SAREF4WATR includes a classification of the different water properties based on the classification proposed by the World Health Organization, as shown in Figure 9. Water properties (s4watr:WaterProperty) are classified into acceptability (s4watr:AcceptabilityProperty), chemical (s4watr:ChemicalProperty), and microbial (s4watr:MicrobialProperty) ones, being bacterial (s4watr:BacterialProperty) properties a subclass of microbial ones. The extension defines different individuals for each type of water property, based in different EC directives on the quality of drinking water, bathing water, and groundwater. This list of individuals does not aim to be exhaustive but to reflect the potential use of the ontology. Note, for example, that it is out of the scope to categorize chemical compounds according to their intended use (e.g., pesticide, fertilizer, etc.).
In SAREF4WATR water infrastructures can be defined using the s4watr:WaterInfrastructure class. Such infrastructures may be designed for one of the water types described above (through the s4watr:isDesignedFor property), may have an intended use (through the s4watr:isIntendedFor property), and may be classified into five different types, although others may be defined if needed: distribution systems (s4watr:DistributionSystem), storage infrastructures (s4watr:StorageInfrastructure), treatment plants (s4watr:TreatmentPlant), hydroelectric power plants (s4watr:HydroelectricPowerPlant), and monitoring infrastructures (s4watr:MonitoringInfrastructure).
In order to represent the topology of a water infrastructure or its assets, the GeoSPARQL ontology has been reused and connected to the SARE4WATR terms. As shown in Figure 10, for representing spatial objects the geosp:SpatialObject class from GeoSPARQL has been reused along with its subclasses that allow defining spatial features (geosp:Feature) and geometries (geosp:Geometry). Different properties from GeoSPARQL can be reused to define spatial relations among spatial objects (e.g., geosp:sfContains, or geosp:sfWithin)or to define the geometry of a feature (geosp:hasGeometry). Two types of geometries from the GeoSPARQL Simple Features ontology are proposed to be used: points (sf:Point) and polygons (sf:Polygon), although others may also be used from that same ontology or from another one. We refer to the GeoSPARQL standard for further details on how to define the topology of water infrastructures.
By reusing the SAREF4SYST ontology, the different subsystems of a water infrastructure may be defined. A water infrastructure is a complex system (s4syst:System) and each of its subsystems may be defined (using the s4syst:hasSubSystem property) as a water asset (s4watr:WaterAsset).
As shown in Figure 11, SAREF4WATR defines the main types of water assets found in the literature in a hierarchy that is not intended to be exhaustive and that may be extended if needed. This hierarchy classifies water assets into source assets (s4watr:SourceAsset), sink assets (s4watr:SinkAsset), storage assets (s4watr:StorageAsset), and transport assets (s4watr:TransportAsset).
A dedicated class has been defined for water devices (s4watr:WaterDevice), which are those water assets that are also devices according to SAREF (saref:Device). A water meter, described above, is one special type of water device, among other possible water-related sensors and actuators.
Figure 12 provides an overview of the modelling of Key Performance Indicators (KPI). The KPI modelling involves two main concepts, namely s4city:KeyPerformanceIndicator and s4city:KeyPerformanceIndicatorAssessment. As can be seen in the figure, the modelling of KPIs in SAREF4WATR totally relies on the KPI model proposed in SAREF4CITY.
In SAREF4WATR, KPIs are intended to be defined for water infrastructures (s4watr:WaterInfrastructure). However, KPIs may also be defined for other features of interest.
The example presented in Figure 13 depicts a water meter (ex:Meter4837QW123). It can be described by a set of static properties either reused from SAREF (e.g., saref:hasModel) or from SAREF4WATR (e.g., s4watr:hasFirmwareVersion). The spatial extent of the meter is described by its geometry (ex:MeterGeom) that is represented as a point in space following its WKT representation. SAREF4WATR defines different measurable properties of a water meter, among them the battery remaining time (s4watr:BatteryRemainingTime) that is the one used in the example. Measurements of the meter for this property can be represented (ex:WMMeasurement200206) using for example the time instant of the measurement, its value and the unit of measure.
The main function of water meters is to measure water flow. Figure 14 presents two examples of water flow measurements (ex:WFMeasurement170206 and ex:WFMeasurement643234) for two different water flow properties (s4watr:FlowVolume and s4watr:ExternalTemperature, respectively). Notice how the flow volume measurement is described with a time instant while the external temperature one is described with a time interval (ex:PT838452).
Different tariffs can be applied to water meters. Figure 15 presents an example of a consumption-based tariff (ex:Meter4837QW123Tariff) for a water meter (ex:Meter4837QW123). Different individuals are defined for describing the duration (ex:FiveYears), period (ex:OneYear) and billing period (ex:OneMonth) of the tariff. SAREF4WATR does not restrict how to define particular conditions of a tariff; in the example, for the consumption description a string literal is used.
The measurement of the different properties of the water itself is also of interest. Figure 16 presents two measurements (ex:DTSMeasurement106 and ex:DTSMeasurement107) of one chemical property (s4watr:Cadmium) and of one bacterial property (s4watr:EscherichiaColi), along with their timestamps, values and units. Even if SAREF4WATR includes a set of predefined water properties, other properties could be defined by instantiating the corresponding s4watr:WaterProperty subclass.
Figure 17 depicts a water infrastructure (ex:DowntownDS) that represents a distribution system for drinking water (s4watr:DrinkingWater) intended for domestic use (s4watr:Domestic). The spatial extent of the infrastructure is described by its geometry (ex:DSGeom) that is represented as a polygon in space following its WKT representation. The water distribution system has different subsystems: a water meter (ex:Meter4837QW123), a tank (ex:Tank38472) and a pump (ex:PumpRT73467). These subsystems can be represented through their geometries, as points in the example (ex:MeterGeom, ex:TankGeom, ex:PumpGeom), and different measures could be made of them such as the one depicted (ex:PMeasurement854306) that measures the flow rate (s4watr:FlowRate) of the pump.
Figure 18 contains an example of a key performance indicator (ex:MinimumPressureLevel) defined for a water distribution system (ex:DowntownDS). The key performance indicator is defined with its name and calculation period (ex:OneWeek). Besides, an assessment is made for the KPI (ex:MPL2020020723), derived from existing measurements (ex:PLMeasurement56206, ex:PLMeasurement56207 and ex:PLMeasurement56208), indicating the value of the assessment and its temporal properties.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials.
A bacterial property is a property of water that is related to bacteria.
A channel is a passage of water flowing in an open conduit (i.e., subject to atmospheric pressure).
A chemical property is a property of water that is related to chemical components.
A consumption-based tariff is a tariff that is based on consumption.
A water distribution system is an infrastructure to carry potable water from a centralized treatment plant or wells to water consumers in order to adequately deliver water to satisfy residential, commercial, industrial and fire fighting requirements.
Class to group those properties related to the environment.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
A fire hydrant is a fitting in a street or other public place with a nozzle by which a fire hose may be attached to a water main.
A gauging station is an infrastructure to monitor and test terrestrial bodies of water.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight.
A hydroelectric power plant is an infrastructure to generate electricity by conversion of the energy of running water.
An intake is an installation for obtaining water from a source of supply (river, lake, reservoir, and so on).
A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
A main is a passage of water to flow through.
A maintenance hole is an enclosure that facilitates human access to and working space for equipment.
A microbial property is a property of water that is related to microbes.
A monitoring infrastructure is an infrastructure to monitor water.
An ocean is a large body of salt water.
A pipe is a passage of water flowing in a closed conduit (i.e., not subject to atmospheric pressure).
A pit is a well or hole sunk in the ground to procure, store or drain water.
A pump is a device for moving water by mechanical action.
A reservoir is an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
A sea is a body of salt water partly or fully enclosed by land.
A sink asset is a water asset where water sinks.
A source asset is a water asset that is a natural source of water.
A storage asset is a water asset used to store water.
An storage infrastructure is an infrastructure to storage both potable water for consumption, and non potable water for use in agriculture.
A tank is a container for storing water.
A tariff is a schedule of rates or charges of a business or a public utility. Tariffs can be based on time, thresholds or consumption; however, combined tariffs may also exist that mix more than one of these types.
A threshold-based tariff is a tariff that is based on a threshold.
A time-based tariff is a tariff that is based on time.
A transport asset is a water asset used to enable and support the transport and distribution of water.
A treatment plant is an infrastructure to improve the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use.
A valve is a device designed to control water flow, pressure or volume.
A vent is the part of a system that allows air to enter a plumbing system to maintain proper air pressure and sewer gases to escape to the outside.
This class is used to define a particular quantity or body of water.
A water asset is a physical entity used in the process of transporting, treating, storing and distributing water.
A water device is a device that is also a water asset.
Class to group those properties related to water flow.
A water infrastructure is the set of facilities, services, and installations needed for water management.
A water meter is an instrument intended to measure continuously, memorize, and display the volume of water passing through the meter.
Class to group those properties related to water meters.
Class to group those properties related to the water.
This class is used to define the different uses of water.
The water meter to which a tariff applies to.
A relationship specifying the features of interest that are controlled by a device.
A relationship specifying the devices that control a feature of interest.
A relationship specifying the devices that measure a feature of interest.
The time interval in each day for which a tariff is applied (e.g., 8:00 to 10:00).
The day of the week for which a tariff is applied (e.g., each Saturday and Sunday).
The billing period of a tariff.
The duration of a tariff.
The period of a tariff.
The time for which the value of a measurement applies to the feature of interest.
The type of water for which an infrastructure is designed for.
The intended use of the infrastructure.
A relationship specifying the features of interest that are measured by a device.
The day of the month for which a tariff is applied (e.g., each 15).
The financial consumption related to a tariff (e.g., prepaid tariffs).
The volume consumption related to a tariff (e.g., after consumption of 900 litres).
The volume flow related to a tariff.
The billing date of a tariff.
The fabrication number of a device.
The firmware version of a device.
The hardware version of a device.
The start date and time of a tariff.
The version of a device.
The radio frequency at which a device operates.
The power required by a device.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of 1,2-dichloroethane.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of acrylamide.
Use of water for the farming of plants and livestock.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of aluminium.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of ammonium.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of antimony.
Use of water for the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of arsenic.
Property of the environment indicating the atmospheric pressure.
The time in which the battery was last changed.
The time for which the battery has been operating since the last charge.
The time until the battery is discharged.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of benzene.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of benzo(a)pyrene.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of boron.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of bromate.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of cadmium.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of chloride.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of chromium.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of clostridium perfringens.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of coliform bacteria.
Property of the water indicating its colony count at 22 ºC.
Property of the water indicating its colony count at 37 ºC.
Property of the water indicating its colour.
Property of the water indicating its conductivity.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of copper.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of cyanide.
Use of water for domestic purposes.
Drinking water is water that is treated to comply with drinking water standards.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of enterococci.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of epichlorohydrin.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of escherichia coli.
Property of the environment indicating the temperature.
Property indicating the pressure of a water flow.
Property indicating the rate of a water flow.
Property indicating the temperature of a water flow.
Property indicating the volume of a water flow.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of fluoride.
Property of the water indicating its hardness.
Property of the environment indicating the humidity.
Property of the water indicating its hydrogen ion concentration.
Use of water for industrial purposes.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of iron.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of lead.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of manganese.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of mercury.
The duration of the meter power up.
The time for which the meter has been operating.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of nickel.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of nitrate.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of nitrite.
Property of the water indicating its odour.
Property of the water indicating its oxidisability.
Property of the water indicating its oxygen saturation.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Property of the environment indicating the precipitation.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Raw water is water found in the environment that has not been treated and does not have any of its minerals, ions, particles, bacteria, or parasites removed.
Use of water for recreational purposes.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of selenium.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of sodium.
Stormwater is water that originates during precipitation events and snow/ice melt.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of sulphate.
Property of the water indicating its taste.
Property of the water indicating its temperature.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of tetrachloroethene.
Property of the water indicating the dissolved combined content of all inorganic and organic substances present in a sample of water.
Property of the water indicating its total indicative dose.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of total organic carbon.
Property of the water indicating the dry-weight of suspended particles, that are not dissolved, in a sample of water.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of trichloroethene.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of trihalomethanes.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of tritium.
Property of the water indicating its turbidity.
Property of the water indicating its concentration of vinyl chloride.
Wastewater is water that has been used in the home, in a business, or as part of an industrial process.
This documentation page was generated automatically using SPARQL-Generate, developed by Maxime Lefrançois. The SAREF public portal, the SAREF sources with continuous integration and deployment, the SAREF Pipeline software, and ETSI Technical Specification TS 103 673 v1.1.1 "SAREF Development Framework and Workflow, Streamlining the Development of SAREF and its Extensions", have been developed in the context of the ETSI STF 578, which followed the ETSI STF 556.
An acceptability property is a property of water that is related to its acceptability.